Answer: The Incas
Some extra relevant information:
The ancient civilization that developed in a tropical jungle rather than a river basin was the Maya civilization. While other ancient civilizations such as the Egyptians, Mesopotamians, and Indus Valley civilizations thrived in fertile river valleys, the Maya chose to settle in dense rainforests of Central America.
The Maya civilization emerged around 2000 BCE and reached its peak between 250 and 900 CE. It encompassed parts of present-day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. The dense jungles provided the Maya with a unique environment that influenced their culture, economy, and way of life.
Despite the challenges posed by the tropical jungle, the Maya managed to flourish and develop several advanced achievements. They created elaborate city-states with impressive architectural structures, including towering pyramids, grand palaces, and intricate temples. These structures served as places of worship, administrative centers, and gathering spaces for ceremonies. The renowned city of Tikal, for example, stands as a testament to the grandeur of Maya architecture.
Moreover, the Maya civilization made significant strides in astronomy, mathematics, and the development of a written language known as hieroglyphics. They were excellent astronomers and mathematicians, charting celestial movements with precision and developing complex numerical systems.
The tropical jungle environment also shaped the Maya’s agricultural practices. They developed advanced farming techniques, such as slash-and-burn agriculture, which involved clearing small sections of the jungle by cutting down trees and burning the vegetation. The resulting ash enriched the soil, allowing the Maya to cultivate crops like maize (corn), beans, squash, and more.
Furthermore, the Maya civilization was deeply connected to nature and believed in the sacredness of their environment. They worshipped various deities associated with natural elements, celestial bodies, and animals. Rituals and offerings to appease these gods were an integral part of Maya religious practices.
The majestic Maya civilization thrived in the midst of an untamed tropical jungle, demonstrating their ability to adapt and conquer challenging surroundings. Today, their archaeological sites and remnants stand as a testament to their vibrant culture and remarkable achievements in the heart of the dense rainforests of Central America.