Answer: For lack of fresh fruits and vegetables on long trips
Some extra relevant information:
Scurvy, once a common problem for sailors, was primarily caused by a deficiency of Vitamin C in their diets. During the Age of Sail, long voyages at sea often lacked fresh fruits and vegetables, which are essential sources of this vital vitamin.
Vitamin C plays a significant role in the production of collagen, a protein necessary for the healthy formation of blood vessels, skin, bones, and connective tissue. It also assists in the absorption of iron and supports the proper functioning of the immune system. Without adequate Vitamin C intake, sailors were susceptible to developing scurvy.
Sailing expeditions lasting for weeks or even months presented challenges in preserving fresh produce. Traditional preservation methods, such as salting or drying, were used on board, but these processes significantly reduced the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables, including their Vitamin C content.
The lack of fresh food options left sailors with a diet primarily consisting of ships’ rations like salt meat, biscuits, and dried grains. These provisions were long-lasting but lacked essential nutrients. As a result, sailors experienced malnutrition and weakened immune systems, making them vulnerable to diseases and infections including scurvy.
Scurvy manifested with a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, swollen or bleeding gums, joint pain, and slow wound healing. In severe cases, it could lead to anemia, gum disease, and even death.
It wasn’t until the 18th century that British naval surgeon James Lind conducted experiments that revealed the connection between citrus fruits and scurvy prevention. His experiments demonstrated that consuming citrus fruits, rich in Vitamin C, greatly improved the health of sailors suffering from scurvy.
This discovery prompted the British Navy to implement the regular provision of lemon or lime juice to sailors, leading to a significant reduction in scurvy cases. This preventive measure was widely adopted by other navies, and eventually, the importance of Vitamin C in maintaining overall health became well-known.
In modern times, scurvy is a rarity due to the easy access to fresh produce containing Vitamin C. However, the historical significance of scurvy and its impact on sailors’ health remains a significant part of maritime history, highlighting the importance of a balanced diet and proper nutrition, even in challenging circumstances.